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Systemic and Ophthalmic Management of Diabetes Mellitus

Chris Steele, the Head of Optometry in Sunderland Eye Infirmary, has a wealth of experience and knowledge in retinal pathology and has recently published what is now his second book on diabetes. This has been a major undertaking, taking three...

Addressing medical risk factors for diabetes and understanding the new systemic treatments

As global diabetes figures continue to rise, the importance of reducing the burden of macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes has never been so great. By 2025 it is estimated that five million people in the UK will have diabetes...

Cataract incidence rates in patients from the UK suffering with diabetes mellitus

The authors summarise the main findings from a recent study which investigated the incidence rates of cataract in patients with or without diabetes mellitus (DM). Background to the study Worldwide, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 253 million people...

Commonwealth nations join forces to prevent blindness from diabetes

More than 70 representatives from 10 Commonwealth countries (in the African, Caribbean and Pacific regions) and Indonesia gathered at a five-day workshop in November 2014 to establish district or national plans to reduce blindness from diabetic retinopathy (DR). The event...

Sustainable prevention of blindness from diabetic retinopathy through prevention and control of diabetes mellitus – LINK partnership experience in Dominica

The Caribbean Diabetic Retinopathy Project (DR Caribbean) is a five-year project that aims to reduce blindness due to diabetic retinopathy (DR) across four Commonwealth countries: Belize, Dominica, Jamaica and St Lucia. The VISION 2020 LINKS Programme at the London School...

Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy: Changes in understanding of the disease over the last 25 years and how the UK is helping low-income countries tackle the challenges

Diabetes – a historical perspective Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease caused by inherited and / or acquired deficiency in production of insulin by the pancreas, or by the ineffectiveness of the insulin produced. Such a deficiency results in...

Diabetic Macular Oedema

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that affects the metabolism of all three categories of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. This condition is characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia [1]. This can cause end organ damage. The estimated worldwide diabetes prevalence for 2010...

Management of proliferative diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness in the working-age population. Due to the worsening global epidemic of diabetes, the incidence of morbidity caused by the disease is set to increase [1]. The prevalence of diabetes in the UK...

Fundus photography in Malawi – setting up a screening programmefor diabetic retinopathy

We present the case of a 53-year-old lady who presented to the diabetes outpatient clinic at Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH), Lilongwe, Malawi. She was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus six years ago, for which she takes metformin orally. She...

Tackling diabetic retinopathy globally through the VISION 2020 LINKS Diabetic Retinopathy Network

It is abundantly clear that the burden of diabetes is rapidly increasing, as there are now 415 million adults with diabetes in the world, with a projected rise to 642 million by 2040 [1]. This equates to 1 in 10...