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Confocal microscopy and corneal graft rejection

Forty-five patients following penetrating keratoplasty (PK) were examined with the HRT III Rostock Cornea Module confocal microscope at various points after their surgery for two years. Activated keratocytes (AKs) were counted manually and their mean number evaluated. A pattern was...

In vivo confocal microscopy, principles and use in keratitis Part 1: Principles

In 1968 Maurice introduced the concept of high powered specular microscopy, it was in that very year that the first scanning confocal microscope was proposed. Marvin Minsky developed the first confocal microscope in 1955 named the ‘double focusing scanning microscope’....

Meibomian gland alteration in patients with primary chronic dacryocystitis: An in vivo confocal microscopy study

Chronic dacryocystitis affects tear film functionality and can predispose to ocular surface disease, however the specific effect of chronic dacryocystitis on meibomian gland function has not been studied. This group therefore performed in vivo confocal microscopy in 28 patients’ eyes...

Spectral domain OCT vs. confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope in measuring RNFL thickness

The aim of this prospective study was to compare the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFL) measurements obtained from the Cirrus optical coherence tomography (spectral domain OCT) with the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph 3 (HRT3, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope). Eighty-eight normal...

Can intravitreal anti-VEGF injections affect corneal nerves?

This was a retrospective case-control study looking at the effect of anti-VEGF injections on corneal nerves (CN). Fifty-seven patients with a history of at least three anti-VEGF injections in one or both eyes and available confocal microscopic imaging were included...

Corneal thickness in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy

This cross-sectional study assessed corneal thickness in association with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) severity. The study also tried to identify the layer of the cornea most affected by DPN status. Performed at the University of Michigan the study included three...

Influence of FLEx and SMILE on corneal nerve density and ocular surface

This was a prospective study designed to compare the influence of femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) and small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) on the corneal nerve density and ocular surface for myopic correction. Thirty patients underwent bilateral lenticule extraction. One eye...

Corneal lenticule allotransplant

This animal study looked at corneal lenticule allograft transplantation in rabbits. Seven rabbits underwent small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) procedures, where their stromal lenticules were extracted and transplanted fresh into pre-prepared corneal stromal pockets of seven recipient eyes. Animals were...

Corneal neurotisation with an allograft

This is the first reported use of an acellular nerve allograft for corneal neurotisation. Seven patients received a 7cm long commercially prepared acellular nerve allograft. This was coapted to a functioning supratrochlear, supraorbital or infraorbital nerve and then tunnelled to...

Two bifocals and a trifocal

The authors compare the optical outcomes of two bifocal intraocular lenses (AcrySof ReSTOR +2.50 Diopter [D] add +3.0D add) with a trifocal lens (AT LISA tri 839MP). The optical qualities of the lenses were quantified by measuring the modulation transfer...

Newer generation IOL platforms designed for high-quality visual performance after cataract surgery

Expanding intraocular lens (IOL) capabilities provide broadening options, ranging from next-generation monofocal IOLs for basic cataract surgery, to specialised premium IOLs for lens-based presbyopia correction and astigmatism correction at the time of cataract surgery. Rod McNeil considers several newer alternative...

How to diagnose and treat Acanthamoeba keratitis

Corneal ulceration caused by Acanthamoeba is on the rise, and recent publications indicate an outbreak in the UK over the last few years [1]. Since Acanthamoeba keratitis often presents with atypical features, diagnosis from slit-lamp examination alone can often be...