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Understanding spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS): what do we know?

Introduction Formerly known as visual impairment and intracranial pressure syndrome (VIIP), space-related neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) is defined by a collection of ophthalmic and neurological findings in astronauts after long-term spaceflight [1]. Changes in the eyeball, such as hyperopic shift, during...


Children with Vision Impairment: Assessment, Development, and Management

Childhood blindness is a major public health concern worldwide with several implications ranging from a child’s development, education, and employment opportunities to social and functional challenges. This book offers a succinct, sequential approach to understanding conditions which lead to visual...