Latest Contribution


Immunoglobulin G4-related ophthalmic disease – what is it? Part 1

Part 1: Epidemiology, classification, radiology, histopathology and associations In this two-part series, Li Yen Goh reviews IgG4 disease and reminds us of diagnostic challenges faced. Introduction Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) disease is a recently recognised idiopathic systemic condition characterised by mass-forming...


The assessment of pupils and 
pupillary reactions

Understanding pupillary reactions is vital in understanding basic neuro-opthalmology. It is a skill required in eye casualty, clinics and perhaps most importantly, exams. To start at the beginning, the pupil is the central aperture of the iris, its size controlling...