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Ocular bubbly: a vitreoretinal update on the art of gases

The authors remind us of the revolutionary impact gases have had on retinal surgery. In 1938, Rosengren attempted to improve his retina repair surgical outcomes [1]. He discovered that suturing the retina or pressing externally on the sclera were not...

An eye on novel anti-cancer agents: an evidence-based approach to external eye assessment

Novel anti-cancer therapies have led to significant advancement in cancer treatment, however, they can be associated with external eye complications. It is important to be mindful of such adverse effects during assessment of patients enrolled in clinical trials. Annually, approximately...

A closed angle seldom comes alone

Case report An 89-year-old lady with dementia was referred to me out of hours by her GP with a few days history of an angry looking left eye for suspected elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). I discovered that this lady first...

In vivo confocal microscopy, principles and use in keratitis Part 1: Principles

In 1968 Maurice introduced the concept of high powered specular microscopy, it was in that very year that the first scanning confocal microscope was proposed. Marvin Minsky developed the first confocal microscope in 1955 named the ‘double focusing scanning microscope’....

Ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid: the importance of early detection and treatment

Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is an autoimmune blistering disorder that is characterised by subepithelial bullae. The ocular manifestation of MMP, ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid (OMMP), is a sight-threatening condition characterised by conjunctival cicatricial changes associated with corneal vascularisation and scarring....

Typical or surprisingly uncharacteristic presentations of neuro-ophthalmic emergencies

Irrespective of geographical location or patient cohort, emergency departments are high risk locations capable of inspiring extreme anxiety and dread in patients and doctors alike. The stress multiplies when a walk-in or referred case is suspected of underlying neurological pathology....

The Gambia-Swansea VISION 2020 LINK: building eye care services and international friendships

History The VISION 2020 LINK between the Sheikh Zayed Regional Eye Care Centre (SZRECC), Banjul, The Gambia and the Ophthalmology Department, Singleton Hospital, Swansea started in 2008 under the guidance of the VISION 2020 LINKS Programme at the International Centre...

Anaesthetic drops abuse

A 67-year-old retired female nurse presented with persistent, bilateral, non-healing (>6 weeks) corneal ulcers and stromal ring infiltrates (Figures 1 and 2). The epithelial defects were the result of chemical burns caused by her contact lenses which had been stored...

Effective management of dry eye and ocular surface disease

Experts recommend a consistent approach to diagnosis, therapeutic targeting by disease subtype and escalation of therapy when tear substitutes are not sufficient. Experts call for a consistent, unified approach to diagnosis of dry eye disease (DED), with a new simple...

Vitreomacular traction and full thickness macular hole

Clinical scenario: A 64-year-old lady presented to the clinic with a few weeks history of sudden onset of metamorphopsia, central blur and reduced vision in her right eye. The ocular examination and ocular coherence tomography confirmed right eye focal vitreomacular...

Late stromal rejection in DALK

This case series reported on late stromal rejections in eyes after uncomplicated deep anterior lamellar keratoplasties (DALKs). Four eyes of three patients experienced episodes of isolated stromal rejection 33 to 46 months after surgically uncomplicated DALKs and a minimum of...

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of open globe injury

This retrospective cohort study examined consecutive open globe injuries at a tertiary referral centre over a three year period. The aim of the study was to detail the clinical characteristics of open globe injuries and to explore their association with...