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Anatomical and functional outcomes following switching from aflibercept to ranibizumab in NARMD

This is a six-month, prospective, single-arm study in the UK and Germany. A total of 100 patients were enrolled (one in the primary failure group, 99 in the suboptimal treatment response group), treated three-monthly intravitreal ranibizumab injections (0.5mg), and then...

A step-by-step approach to the diagnosis and management of Sands of Sahara Syndrome

Sands of Sahara syndrome (diffuse lamellar keratitis) is a rare postoperative complication of Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Its estimated prevalence is reported to be 2-4% among LASIK cases [1], despite that, it is more likely to be encountered by...

White dot syndromes

It is fair to say that trainees and consultants who are not medical retina specialists are a bit scared of the so called retinal ‘white dot syndromes’. It is easy to understand why this is the case, as almost every...

Genetic profiling for personalised healthcare solutions in AMD – an update

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial condition influenced by genetics and lifestyle factors (Table 1). This article outlines several recent advances in AMD genetics, as well as evolving therapeutic concepts and established practical measures for the treatment and /...

An update on inherited retinal disorders (part 2): Approaches to therapy for IRDs

Part 1 of this topic can be found here There are currently no proven cures for inherited retinal disease (IRD). However, multiple avenues of research are being investigated to better understand disease mechanisms and trial potential therapies that may slow...

Hot debates in medical retina and imaging: Perspectives from the Controversies in Ophthalmology 2020 virtual conference

Controversies in medical retina and imaging were debated during the Controversies in Ophthalmology 2020 virtual conference held during two mid-day scientific sessions on 27 and 28 March 2020. The author recounts key perspectives and presents viewpoint recommendations from the Vision...

Surgical options for the treatment of hyperopia

The modern refractive surgeon has a variety of options available to treat patients with hyperopia who wish to be independent of spectacles and contact lenses. Unlike in low myopia where presbyopic patients may have the ability to see well for...

The paediatric cataract: an overview of the embryology and pathophysiology

In the first of the two articles (see Part 2 here) on paediatric cataracts, Samuel Aryee reviews the aetiology of this condition. Cataracts arise from opacification of the natural transparent lens, which can cause partial or total blindness. Although the...

In conversation with Robert MacLaren

Professor Robert MacLaren gave the Keeler Lecture at the Royal College of Ophthalmologists Annual Meeting in May 2019 on gene therapy for retinitis pigmentosa. We caught up with him afterwards to find out more. What are the key messages of...

The final step

Not long after securing my fellowship in London I was successful at interview for a consultant post at Singleton Hospital, Swansea. The interview took place before I had actually started in London and besides the basic things that are asked...

Quiz Dec/Jan 2020

History A 69-year-old female patient was referred to the uveitis clinic from her local district general hospital with a left posterior uveitis which had been unresponsive to high dose steroids. She had no other previous ophthalmic history nor significant systems...

Aug/Sep 2015 Quiz 2

History A two-year-old female child presented with loss of vision in her left eye. Examination showed leukocoria and intraocular calcification was identified on scanning. The suspected diagnosis was intraocular retinoblastoma and the child underwent an enucleation. The eyeball was submitted...