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Insights in resistant diabetic macular oedema

This article gives a bird’s eye review of the different modalities for the treatment of diabetic macular oedema (DME). The debut of anti-VEGFs has brought a paradigm shift in DME management. This treatment has now become a major breakthrough in...

Changes in parafoveal retinal thickness after bariatric surgery in type 2 diabetics

Bariatric surgery induces an instant normalisation of blood glucose in as many as 80% of patients with type 2 diabetes. It has been previously reported that diabetic retinopathy (DR) is stable within one year after bariatric surgery. In this study,...

Prostaglandin levels in femto cataract surgery

Following previous reports of pupil size decrease after femtosecond treatment, the authors compare levels of prostaglandins in patients undergoing femtosecond assisted cataract surgery with those having routine cataract surgery. Patients with inflammatory eye disease, previous trauma surgery, age-related macular degeneration...

In vivo confocal microscopy, principles and use in keratitis Part 1: Principles

In 1968 Maurice introduced the concept of high powered specular microscopy, it was in that very year that the first scanning confocal microscope was proposed. Marvin Minsky developed the first confocal microscope in 1955 named the ‘double focusing scanning microscope’....

The most frequent complaints and claims in ophthalmology – a Medical Protection Society (MPS) analysis

The authors look at the reasons behind medico-legal cases reported to MPS and share key learning points. Complications following ophthalmology surgery are rare, however, medico-legal cases are not uncommon due to the significant impact they can have on patients’ lifestyles....

A comparison of light sources in retinal imaging

Before starting to talk about the light sources present in retinal imaging, it is necessary to start from the base: the light. Light is an electromagnetic wave whose smallest part is the photon (or quantum of light). A high frequency...

The embryology of the eye

Nobody claims to like embryology. At least nobody I know. It has been a neglected part of the curriculum since time immemorial and a vicious cycle occurs in which those with an incomplete understanding fail to appreciate the inherent beauty...

Diffuse lamellar keratitis

This study group reviewed cytokine- and chemokine-mediated mechanisms of diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) after lamellar corneal surgical procedures. DLK can occur early or late (months to decades) after all lamellar corneal surgeries, including laser in situ keratomileusis, small incision lenticule...

Femto-DMEK – a solution for high re-bubbling rates?

This retrospective study examined results of patients that underwent femtosecond laser enabled descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) (FE-DMEK) and manual DMEK (M-DMEK) for Fuch’s endothelial dystrophy. In FE-DMEK femtosecond laser was used to create 8.25mm descemetorhexis, whereas during M-DMEK- descemetorhexis...

OCT choroidal signs for congenital retinal pigment epithelium hypertrophy

Congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) on ocular coherence tomography (OCT) has the characteristic sign of RPE thickening and hyper reflectivity. However, the underlying choroid characteristics remain under researched. This retrospective study utilised data from an ophthalmic oncology...

Management of diabetic macular oedema (DMO)

The authors present guidelines on current diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the management of DMO. Fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are recommended before starting treatment to help diagnose and stage DMO, and can be repeated if there...

Corneal molecular and cellular biology for refractive surgeon

This is an interesting literature review that looks into the recent advances concerning the corneal molecular and cellular processes that are involved in the wound healing response after excimer laser surface ablation and LASIK surgery. It talks about the complex...