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A new observation point: updating the nomenclature and classification with OCT

The evolution of ophthalmic imaging technologies has been particularly rapid over the last few years. The author provides an update of the current terms for common signs and pathologies observed using optical coherence tomography. My experience as an ophthalmic technician,...

The management of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy

Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a common retinal disease characterised by one or more serous neurosensory detachments. Patients present with acute onset blurring of vision, metamorphopsia and / or central scotomas. The condition is six times more common in men...

Discussing treatment modalities for bilateral wet AMD

A 65-year-old lady with bilateral wet AMD and vision of 6/24 comes with an internet search about current therapies. How do you explain the various treatment modalities available? There are two NICE approved treatments for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD)....

Embryology in clinical practice

The fascinating world of embryology is both beautiful and practical. It is a home video of our evolutionary history through the ages from the single cell through to the life aquatic, the development of gut, limbs and brain, and most...

Understanding spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS): what do we know?

Introduction Formerly known as visual impairment and intracranial pressure syndrome (VIIP), space-related neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) is defined by a collection of ophthalmic and neurological findings in astronauts after long-term spaceflight [1]. Changes in the eyeball, such as hyperopic shift, during...

Neovascular AMD: fresh recommendations underline standards of best practice

The management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) has advanced dramatically over the past seven years, with the introduction of targeted new therapies that successfully maintain or improve vision in a majority of affected individuals. It’s a fast moving field,...

The past and the future for paediatric ophthalmology

The past 25 years have seen remarkable advances in clinical eye care for children in the UK. This has led to both improved outcomes and better patient and family experiences. There have been substantial changes to patient pathways, major advances...

Typical or surprisingly uncharacteristic presentations of neuro-ophthalmic emergencies

Irrespective of geographical location or patient cohort, emergency departments are high risk locations capable of inspiring extreme anxiety and dread in patients and doctors alike. The stress multiplies when a walk-in or referred case is suspected of underlying neurological pathology....

Diabetic polyneuropathy and risk of developing diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy are widely classified as microvascular complications of diabetes. DPN, which may cause complete sensation loss, is another common complication of DM. The DPN-related diminished sensation presents a significant risk factor for...

A career in uveitis

As he retires from clinical practice, the author looks back on his long career in uveitis and how care of these patients has changed dramatically since his days as an undergraduate. My trainees and fellows are often bored by my...

Headaches in ophthalmology (part 2)

Ophthalmologists see a large number of patients with headaches or facial pain in the ophthalmic outpatient clinics or in emergency clinics. Over two articles, I will discuss several causes of headaches, ocular manifestations and proposed management and referral options. It...

Typical and atypical optic neuritis – diagnosis and initial management

Optic neuritis is a relatively common presentation to ophthalmologists in the acute setting. The vast majority are cases of ‘typical’ optic neuritis (ON) but a smaller group of conditions, so-called, ‘atypical’ optic neuritides require a different work-up and management strategy....