Using a pupillometer to confirm presence of RAPD in post stroke homonymous hemianopia

It has been reported that relative afferent pupillary defects (RAPDs) may be present in patients with occipital lobe lesions. However, a small contralateral RAPD due to a difference in the crossed and uncrossed fibres can be difficult to detect using...

PRN Ranibizumab verses continuous aflibercept in UK clinical practice

This was a multicentre (21 UK hospitals), national EMR study on treatment naïve nAMD eyes, undergoing predominantly as needed (PRN) Ranibizumab or continuous (fixed or treat and extend - (F/TE)) Aflibercept (Af). The primary outcome was change in vision at...

CD40L activation of human RPE cells

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of reduced visual acuity in the elderly worldwide. The risk factors involved in AMD include smoking and diet, while genetics have been shown to have a significant role. Recently a link between...

Importing iron to the retina

In the retina, iron is particularly critical for the visual phototransduction cascade. In the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), RPE65 activity leads to 11-cis-retinaldehyde, the photosensitive component of rhodopsin production and iron containing enzymes are necessary for disc replacement in photoreceptor...

How many injections in nAMD: ranibizumab vs. aflibercept

Intravitreal anti-VEGF injections make up a large proportion of the workload in ophthalmology clinics. Since the introduction of aflibercept with eight weekly injections there has been an option to use a treatment which may require less treatment, with potential cost...

Systematic review on vergence neural pathways

A full systematic review of the literature was carried out by the authors, to identify literature available on vergence neural pathways and associated disorders. The review included articles related to vergence neural pathways, along with articles that discussed the anatomy,...

The rarebit vision test for macular conditions

Rarebit testing is used to measure low degrees of neuro-visual damage and is available for free on the internet. It consists of a fixed bright light dot presented on a black background. During testing it is presented briefly at different...

A case series of acquired esotropia in cerebellar disease

Acquired esotropia in cerebellar disease is well described but under-recognised. The pathogenesis of cerebellar esotropia is controversial. It is suggested it may be a result of disruption to central vestibular pathways. This article reports a case series of seven adults...

Transfected RPE cells inhibit AMD in rats

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Wet AMD is characterised by choroidal neovascularisation, new vessels into the retina, leading to leakage and tissue damage. Many proangiogenic factors particularly vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)...

Is an increased homocysteine level associated with greater risk of AMD?

Basic research studies have implicated homocysteine in causing vascular endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, and this has been borne out in large observational studies which suggested that elevated homocysteine is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In order to determine...

Intravitreal injection related endophthalmitis

This article reviews the incidence, clinical findings, risk factors, management and visual outcomes in intravitreal injection related endophthalmitis. Incidence of this complication is reported to be in the range of 0.038% to 0.065% (1 in 2000-3000 injections). Patients present typically...

Exudative age-related macular degeneration

The authors looked at macular lesions in eyes with newly diagnosed exudative age-related macular degeneration. The eyes of 23 patients were included and tested for visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, microperimetry, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography....

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